Executive Summary

This handbook provides the sustainable and effective measure of cultural mentoring to leverage the diversity of today's workforce and the necessity to collaborate and cooperate across national and cultural boundaries. Enterprises can thus distinguish themselves as attractive employers to a workforce increasingly sensitive to this issue and attract and retain talent from a much larger recruitment pool as well as utilizing otherwise unnoticed potential . Additionally client structures are needs are also increasingly diverse and can thus be catered for more appropriately.

A printable, full version of the SKILL2E Enterprise Handbook can be downloaded from here.

The SKILL2 Cultural Mentoring Concept was designed by a consortium of 7 universities and 5 enterprises comprising all major European cultural clusters and has diversity built in with respect to size, sector and background of experts involved. Additionally, the current state of the literature and results of over 150 enterprise interviews have been integrated. The handbook is intended as a guide for those responsible for implementing the measures in the organization, most likely human resources and organizational development departments but also CEOs as the size of the enterprise is not a relevant factor for its successful implementation.

The handbook sketches the context in which the concept is set, describes the consortium set-up and presents a definition and the enterprise benefits of cultural mentoring. It then details the six steps involved in the process of cultural mentoring and exemplifies these with examples from pilot implementations across the consortium. Two special case studie sexemplify the potential of cultural mentoring. In Case 1, the Salzburg-based Porsche Interauto AG demonstrates the potential of this measure in addressing the cultural issues of apprentices with migratory backgrounds. In Case 2, the SME Copdata recognizes the potential of cultural mentoring as a sustainable measure to build organizational intercultural competence. The appendix provides a number of supportive documents such as guiding questions for self-assessment of one's suitability as mentor, a sample mentoring contract or useful references and links.


This enterprise handbook has presented the SKILL2E Cultural Mentoring Concept as a sustainable measure to address diversity and thus to increase productivity and job satisfaction. Enterprises can utilize it as a powerful and effective tool for employer branding, attracting and retaining talent. Furthermore, enterprises can detect and fully utilize the potential of employees, which is sometimes hidden beneath the culturally induced varnish of unusual or seemingly inappropriate behaviour. No enterprise, regardless of the sector and its size, can afford to forego issues of diversity today. Diversity wins as many studies prove.

Who are we?

SKILL2E is an EU-funded multilateral university-enterprise cooperation project involving 7 universities and 5 enterprises. The consortium has diversity inbuilt in its set-up as it reflects a cross-section of European cultural clusters as well as enterprises from different sectors and of different sizes. Equally, the persons involved in the project come from such varied departments as information technology, business, education, wood technology and international relations. The following institutions are full project partners:

  - Austria: Salzburg University of Applied Sciences (lead partner), Salzburg Chamber of Commerce
  - Finland: ARCADA, UNIVERSUM (the market leader in employer branding)
  - Romania: "Politehnica" University of Timisoara, ETA2U (a medium-sized company in the field of IT)
  - Spain: Alicante University
  - Turkey: Mugla University, MOSDER (an association of furniture designers and manufacturers with 42 members)
  - United Kingdom: Southampton SOLENT University
  - USA: Zicklin School of Business at the City University of New York, IDI, LLC (consultancy)

Additionally, a number of associated enterprises and other higher education institutions have been involved at various stages of the project. Detailed description of the consortium members is presented in the partners area.

Why did we set up our project?

The ability to communicate across cultural and national boundaries has become a key demand in the business world. This is due to the rapid changes in today's work placement environment, the steadily growing reality of distributed and interdisciplinary collaboration, as well as the closely interconnected global economy. Additionally, a substantial increase in diversity in all respects characterizes the social fabric in many European countries as well as the workforce in enterprises. In some countries, this trend has been accelerated through the need for a talent that cannot be satisfied by the home labour market and the general demographic development towards an ageing society. In other countries, the economic situation requires talent to move where work is available.

As educational institutions and enterprises we feel jointly responsible to address this issue. We need to design our curricula to best prepare our graduates adequately for this scenario and we need to share best practices how enterprises can implement and further develop this competence in their environments.

Why is addressing diversity enhancing productivity?

Recent studies have proven that diverse companies profit economically and weather economic downturns much better than companies that ignore this aspect.

  1. - A2011 McKinsey study conducted in Germany, France, Great Britain and the US with 38 000 companies documented a 53% higher equity rate and a 14% higher profit.
  2. - The Vienna-based Institute for Research on Qualifications and Training of the Austrian Economy calculated a 7.7 billion loss in export potential in Austria due to not using the talent and skills of employees with a migratory background. This totals up to slightly over 20% of the gross domestic product. It can be assumed that the figures for other European countries are comparably high. It needs to be noted that these figures are ONLY related to the export potential, not to the loss of productivity in general, which can therefore be estimated as even higher.
  3. - A US study (Distefano and Maznevski, 2000) demonstrated that multicultural teams perform much better than homogeneous teams but only if diversity issues are addressed.
  4. - The Georgetown Consortium Study (2009) proved that without appropriate intervention measures students do not automatically profit from a stay abroad. Intercultural competence-building needs active involvement.

What are our objectives?

- To promote the relevance of intercultural competence in today's societies, especially in Europe but also beyond.
- To provide a sustainable concept for enterprises to establish intercultural competence throughout their workforce at all levels.

What are our objectives?

Through our concept of cultural mentoring we have designed a sustainable measure that can be implemented irrespective of the size, sector, and organizational structure. Even non-export oriented enterprises will benefit from it as their client structure is usually more diverse than they might often assume and are thus better equipped to cater for their clients' needs. All that is required on the part of the enterprise is sincere commitment and the provision of adequate resources to implement the concept. The long-term effects will pay off substantially in terms of increased productivity and employee satisfaction.

What is the purpose of this handbook?

This handbook can be used as guidelines and a checklist in implementing cultural mentoring. It describes all the relevant components and aspects of cultural mentoring. Additionally, it provides a step-by step procedure how to put the concept into operation and examples.

The SKILL2E Cultural Mentoring Model

The concept has been devised by the consortium on the basis ofcurrent knowledge in the field, interviews of over 150 companies across the consortium cultures and the active participation of the consortium enterprise partners. Feedback to the model has been also collected through pilot implementation cases resulting in a refinement of the model. For a detailed description of the model and the underlying theory, see the SKILL2E Cultural Mentoring Concept Report. In this handbook we present only the most relevant aspects for the concept implementation.

What is cultural mentoring?

In the SKILL2E model we define cultural mentoring as a two-way process of support and guidance given by an experienced and qualified person, the mentor, to another person, the mentee, who is either new in an enterprise or who, for other reasons can benefit from this process. The mentoring process focuses on cultural issues that relates to internalized values, norms and practiced behaviour, consciously or unconsciously adopted through socialization in a specific social environment. Differences in value systems and practices can cause friction, miscommunication, and even hostility. Consequently, this can lead to an impasse in communication to as far as a boycott of the company's targets or even sabotage of the company's assets.

Mentoring process is a two-way process. On the one hand, it is intended to support the integration of the mentee into the organizational culture and his or her personal growth. On the other hand, through the engagement with a person with a different cultural background - be it national, ethnic, organizational, generational, gender-related, religion, sexual orientation or other - it has the potential to increase the mentor's competence in dealing with diversity. If the cultural mentoring process is successful, both parties will act as multiplicators and ambassadors of leveraging the potential of diversity and the reduction of culturally induced friction and productivity loss.

How exactly can the enterprise profit from cultural mentoring?

Apart from the personal benefits and growth opportunities of the mentor and the mentee, the enterprise can benefit in the following ways:

  1. - Diversity is addressed in an engaging and employee-focused manner
  2. - Awareness for diversity is enhanced and infiltrated in a non-threatening way
  3. - New employees / interns can be integrated more quickly and efficiently into the organizational culture
  4. - Potential and talent can be recognized beneath the surface of the culturally induced different and maybe wrongly interpreted behaviour and thus be appropriately utilized
  5. - Overall employee job satisfaction is increased through leveraging the actual potential of employees as well as respecting and actively integrating their otherness
  6. - Stereotyping, prejudice and discrimination are mitigated

How does cultural mentoring differ from a general new employees' orientation program? We already have that, isn't that sufficient?

Introducing a new employee /intern to the organizational practices and familiarizing this person with the routines, guidelines and other specifics of a position does definitely not constitute cultural mentoring. It focuses on imparting knowledge about organizational practices that is necessary and, of course, supportive in executing a specific job / task. Cultural mentoring constitutes a two-way learning relationship between two individuals from diverse backgrounds where reflection on cultural differences in dealing and coping with organizational practices is at the core.

How does cultural mentoring differ from coaching?

"Coaching is about performing at your best through the individual and private assistance of someone who will challenge, stimulate and guide you to keep growing." (Gerard O'Donovan at http://internationalinstituteofcoaching.org/coaching_definitions.php). In our concept of Cultural Mentoring, the target is less clearly defined, negotiated and if necessary, adapted in the process. The two-way process of both mentor and mentee profiting and learning from the process is more in the foreground than in coaching. While in both approaches, the persons involved will most likely gain in personal growth, it is only in mentoring that the enterprise itself will also gain substantially by the knowledge and new insights that remain in the organization and are spread through the mentor's multiplicator role.

Implementing the cultural mentoring concept in the enterprise

In our concept we have broken down the cultural mentoring process into distinct stages. Each stage needs due attention in order for the process to be successful as all stages build on each other. It is strongly advised that no stage is skipped.

The following diagram provides an overview of the six individual steps with the ensuing sections explaining each one in detail and giving sample implementation scenarios.


Case Studies used for Validation of Process

The following cases from the project context are used to demonstrate the concrete implementation:

Case 1: Finland-Turkey
Company offering Internship: UNIVERSUM, Helsinki, Finland
Mentor/ Position: Linda Corin / Project Manager Marketing
Field of Internship / study area: Marketing / Business
Duration: 3 months
Sending University: Mugla University (MUG), Turkey
Student referred to as: Turkish student in Finland

Case 2: Austria - Turkey /Romania
Company 1 offering internship: Salzburg Research
Company 2 offering internship: Salzburg University of Applied Sciences (FHS)
Mentor/ Position: Dominik Engel / Professor at FHS
Field of Internship / study area: compute science / computer science
Duration: 3 months
Sending University 1: Mugla University (MUG), Turkey
Sending University 2: Technical University of Timisoara, Romania (UPT)
Student 1 referred to as: Turkish student in Austria
Student 2 referred to as: Romanian student in Austria
Comment: Dominik Engel acted as mentor for both students as the originally selected mentor for Salzburg Research left the company prior to the start of the internship. As Dominik Engel had been collaborating with the colleagues from Salzburg Research and knew their structure quite well, this was seen as a feasible alternative at short notice. Its drawback is mentioned below.

Case 3: Spain - Romania
Company offering internship: Centro Superior de Idiomas, Alicante, Spain
Mentor/ Position: Covadonga Ordonez Garcia / CEO
Field of Internship / study area: business administration / business administration
Duration: 3 months
Sending University: Technical University of Timisoara, Romania (UPT)
Student 1 referred to as: Romanian student 1 in Spain
Student 2 referred to as: Romanian student 2 in Spain

Step 1: Selection and Matching

Definition and logic:
In the case of an internship, the selection involves a bi-lateral process where the student selects an internship destination and applies to the position and the mentor selects one mentee from the successful applications pool. In the case of a new employee, the selection involves mainly the mentor, who has to be able to relate to the cultural background of the future mentee as defined in the mentor qualification profile.

Objectives and Standards of Measurements:
The objective of the selection process is to achieve a successful match between the mentor qualifications and the mentee's background. Those qualifications involve cultural adjustments that could eventually lead to an employee / student who would be satisfied with the organization / job and mentor and the mentor who would be satisfied with the cultural learning of the mentee.

The Cultural Mentor has to demonstrate to the extent possible his or her conformity with the qualification profile, which prescribes the requisite attitudes of openness, respect and curiosity, culture-general and culture-specific knowledge as well as a defined skill set. For a detailed description, see the Cultural Mentoring Concept. The mentor needs to be part of the organization, preferably not an immediate superior, but it is not relevant in which department the mentor is actually based. In this respect, the size of the enterprise, the specific structure and nature of the job might need to be considered.

At this stage, the selection of the student / new employee centers on the qualifications for the job, but additionally, the mentee's willingness to engage in this process needs to be ascertained.

The qualifications of the mentor can be evaluated through self-reflection against the qualification profile and the application of the Intercultural development Inventory (IDI) assessment. The appendix provides a set of guiding questions that can be used for the self-reflection process. The IDI selected in this model as an appropriate assessment instrument as described in detail in the Assessment Instrument Selection Report has two aims here: first, it objectifies the subjective perception of a person's orientation to cultural differences and second, it provides a tool to gauge the extent to which a potential mentor needs training him- or herself.

In accordance with the underlying concept that a person moves through a continuum of being ignorant of cultural differences to effectively communicating across them, it is imperative that a cultural mentor has at least reached the stage of minimization and thus demonstrates a multicultural mindset. Depending on the actual stage and the result of the self-reflection, tailored training may be required. The most relevant aspects of preparing the mentor will be described in the next section. Validation from Cases
In the pilot cases, the mentors were selected on two grounds:
1) they were already personally known to the respective consortium member in each country responsible for mentoring. This was mainly due to the fact that two of the three mentors had already been involved in the project. It could thus be verified that the mentors fulfilled the prerequisite of exposure to other cultures and possessing the defined skills at least to the level the country mentor coordinators could judge.
2) suitability was further checked through their IDI scores, which had to reveal a minimum of advanced minimization. Additionally, all mentors had a personal feedback session on their IDI scores with a qualified administrator to discuss the results and their impact in the mentor's own professional and personal context.

All mentors agreed that the students were well selected for the placement in terms of engagement and job-related skills. Mentors also expressed the IDI's relevance in raising self-awareness and stimulating reflection on one's attitudes towards difference

Spanish mentor: "Yes, I think that IDI is a very useful tool for self-knowledge to face the challenges of being a mentor"

Finnish mentor: "It reminded me about the challenges that one can face when working with persons from a very different background. This was good to remember as I probably otherwise would have expected more understanding from the mentee. After doing the IDI I also understood that I might not be as open-minded as what I thought and that this was something that I should remember and take into consideration when working with my mentee."

Austrian mentor: "It was interesting to take the IDI assessment and to explicitly think about my own position on intercultural communication. The assessment was helpful to be kept in the back of my head but in my opinion did not have a direct influence on the mentoring process."

All mentees agreed that the mentors were well selected and met the expectations they had set on the mentoring process.

Turkish student in Finland commenting on selection of his mentor: "I had this impression [that she was well selected] because my mentor helped and supported me about everything. My mentor knew most of the thing that I needed and was so nice, patient and aware about the cultural differences."

Romanian student commenting about Austrian mentor: "My mentor was well selected, and was a good coupling, we connected from the start. He had a similar professional background, was only some 5-10 years older which meant he was more mature and experienced, but there was only a minimal generation gap. I enjoyed the time spent with Dominik."

Romanian student 1 (Alexandra) commenting about Spanish mentor: "I think my designated mentor was well selected because he was there to help and to explain new things every time I needed."

Romanian student in Austria (Sorin) commenting on IDI relevance: "I had lived in other countries before and was somewhat confident that moving to Austria will be relatively smooth, but the IDI assessment I took at departure challenged me to think whether I was indeed as prepared as I felt. The scores between perceived preparedness and actual intercultural competence were different. As such, the pre-departure briefing was helpful in clarifying things, raising more questions that needed thought and made me more aware that I shouldn't take it lightly."

Turkish student in Austria: "Actually it helped me a little bit as I had not been thinking about other cultures before or my own culture."

Best Practice

A combination of all cases that indicates the ideal selection process.

- The benefits of the cultural mentoring to the organization as a whole and the mentee are clearly communicated to secure engagement and the maximum feedback into the enterprise.
- The qualification profile of the mentor meets the requirements of a multicultural mindset and the associated skills. This is best validated through a combination of self-reflection and objective assessment such as the IDI
- During the selection process for the job, the candidate has already been made aware of the cultural mentoring process and is willing to engage in it.

Step 2: Preparation

Definition and logic:
The preparation refers to the training for and briefing on the mentoring process provided to the mentor and mentee before the two players start their own engagement.

Objectives and Standards of Measurement
The aim of the preparation phase is to secure the required qualification level of the mentor and its alignment with the cultural background and mindset of the mentee.
As regards the mentor, training must be provided in those areas identified as lacking or not fully mastered in the selection process. In any case the training must have defined learning outcomes with respect to the identified needs and must include verification of these outcomes.

If the mentee is a student on an internship, the SKILL2E concept prescribes assessment through IDI as well as a pre-departure training with defined learning outcomes and a minimum timeframe. Students will thus enter into the mentoring process well prepared. For the enterprise this should translate into a good input - output ratio in terms of resources provided and the sustainable organizational competence gain.

In accordance with the defined needs, the mentor training needs to be customized to the specific case. Two workshops with defined learning outcomes and activities have been designed in the SKILL2E Concept, on which tailored trainings could build or be modeled.

The most essential skills in this context are the abilities of:
- active listening in a culturally appropriate manner for the specific mentoring pair
- questioning and eliciting information in a culturally appropriate manner for the specific mentoring pair
- giving feedback in a culturally appropriate and neutral manner for the specific mentoring pair
- neutral observation and withholding judgment

The first three skills are culturally sensitive and therefore require that the mentor has knowledge about the cultural background of the mentee. Potentially different communication and conflict styles as well as a tendency towards either task or relationship orientation need to be considered. While in one culture, for example, indicating active listening through nodding, leaning forward and expressions like "ah, yes", "mmh" or "that's interesting" are appropriate, these might be seen as intrusive and rude by another. A mentor needs to be at least aware of these differences to perceive relevant clues from the mentee.

Naturally, the mentor needs to be familiar with the cultural mentoring concept, most essentially the procedure and the task profile.This comprises
- Acting as a consultation and discussion partner
- Facilitating the integration into the specific workplace environment and organizational culture
- Acting as a role model
- Supporting the self-reflection capacity of the mentee
- being mindful and showing empathy

The pre-departure training approach for students embarking on international internships is outlined in the SKILL2E pre-departure training concept. In any case the mentee needs to be briefed on the process itself and what it involves to be able to truly commit him- or herself as described in the next section.

Validation from Cases

In all cases the mentors were thoroughly briefed on their roles and tasks by the responsible consortium member in each country. All mentioned that this was well carried out and sufficient. However, in the case of the Finnish mentor, she mentioned she would have liked to get more intensive training. The country mentor coordinators were also available throughout the mentoring process to provide any advice and feedback on request of the mentor. All cases proved the high relevance of briefing and training that should not be neglected as any investment at that point pays off manifold in the mentoring process.

Spanish mentor "Training is essential because most of us in the business world do not usually have training in intercultural aspects."

Finnish mentor "Looking back I feel that I should have been more prepared. It would have been great to get some more common information about what is expected from a mentor, how one should guide the mentee and which kind of best practices there is.What has helped me the most has been the pre-discussions about which kinds of challenges one can face when dealing with persons from different cultures and backgrounds. It has been great to really think about how cultures can differ and how every person has his own view about the world and what is good, bad, right and wrong. It helped me being more open-minded and to understand that everything is not always so self-evident.

Austrian mentor: "As this was the first time for me to act as a cultural mentor, the local team walked me through the preparation process. Once I was familiar with the process I decided to use it more as a guideline to provide context and structure rather than as a strict and binding specification." All student mentees were briefed on the mentoring process and prepared through their home university in the SKILL2E pre-departure training. This focused on culture-general knowledge such as aspects of culture and its manifestations, diverse communication styles, the relevance of culture shock, among others. The SKILL2E Pre-departure Training Concept describes the theory background informing this training and the practical implementation.

Best Practice

- The mentor is familiar with all aspects and the procedure of the cultural mentoring concept
- The mentor possesses the right attitudes and the most essential skills, as otherwise the mentoring process will most likely be unsuccessful or at least less beneficial for the mentor, the mentee and eventually your enterprise. It definitely pays off to invest efforts and time here.
- Training for the mentor is provided, if a need to enhance a skill set has been identified in the selection stage.
- The training defines and assesses learning outcomes with respect to the identified needs.
- The mentee is fully briefed on all aspects of the mentoring process.
- In case of a student intern, the home university provides pre-departure training as defined in the SKILL2E model.

Step 3: Commitment

Definition and logic:
Commitment implies that both the mentor and mentee clearly state that they are aware of the procedure of cultural mentoring and are willing to engage in it and carry out all activities involved in it.

Objectives and Standards of Measurement
The objective is to secure this commitment through a measure that is appropriate for the specific mentoring pair and their cultural backgrounds. This means that its achievement is culturally sensitive and cannot be generalized. Thus the discretion of the mentor in choosing, adapting and suggesting the appropriate measure to the mentee is essential.

Basically there are two options to secure commitment: Either in the form of a written statement signed by mentor and mentee or the commitment in the form of an explicit verbal agreement. If both mentor and mentee come from a task-oriented culture, a mentoring contract may be the right format. The SKILL2E mentoring contract provides such an example. If both come from a relationship orientation culture, a contract would actually be seen as a sign of distrust and would not be effective in securing their commitment. If mentor and mentee have different orientations or at least different tendencies, it is the task of the mentor to find out what is the most appropriate and effective measure. In most cases, the mentee's orientation will guide and/ or even determine the approach.

Validation from Cases

In the Finnish case, a mentoring contract was signed, whereas in the other cases, commitment was achieved through clearly addressing this issue in the first meeting.

Spanish mentor:" I think the clear commitment is essential for the relationship to work in the mentoring. It is also important to note that must exist a trusting relationship. For that reason I think a good option is that the mentor is not your boss / supervisor, that allows the mentee talk with enough confidence."

Austrian mentor: "It was agreed that no formal mentoring contract would be necessary as both students clearly demonstrated their serious intention to participate in this mentoring process."

The Finnish mentor deplored the time constraints and that she would have wanted to devote more time to the mentoring process. From the feedback of the mentee, it seems that there was sufficient time to resolve cultural issues and foster the integration of the Turkish student into the organization. However, time management in the mentoring process is definitely a critical issue as is also mentioned below. Regular meetings need to be scheduled, expectations and objectives need to be realistic so that they can actually be met, respectively achieved.

Best Practice

The measure to achieve commitment is aligned with the cultural backgrounds and practices of mentor and mentee
In any case the mentee's specific background is considered
Commitment is based on realistic expectations and set objectives and is checked against the mentor's time budget

Step 4: Active Mentoring

Definition and logic:
Active Mentoring comprises all activities especially the meetings after mentor and mentee have committed to the process. Activities include those identified in the task profile. The mentor needs to make sure activities keep within the spectrum and that mentoring does not turn into simple induction to a new position or coaching.

Objectives and Standards of Measurement
The objectives are facilitating the integration process of the mentee into the organizational culture and potentially also the host country culture, the reduction of culturally induced friction and the fostering of personal growth in a conducive personal learning relationship. The mentoring process needs to be carried out over a minimum period and involves regular meetings with outcomes agreed by mentor and mentee. The success of the active mentoring process is proportionate to the extent of the achievement of these objectives. The verification of this achievement is mainly done in steps 5 and 6.

The commitment stage already ensures that the mentoring process is carried out over a defined period and that regular meetings have been agreed. A period of 3 months can be regarded as the minimum. Only in cases where mentor and mentee are already very advanced in their intercultural competence would a shorter period be meaningful. Then the focus would most likely be on the competence gain for the enterprise.
The frequency of the meetings and their duration is also crucial. A weekly meeting of a minimum of an hour is regarded as ideal. It might be helpful to agree on a defined day and a defined time to establish a routine. Face-to-face meetings are essential in intercultural communication. Virtual meetings would require additional skills on the part of the mentor as all non-verbal clues are much more difficult to pick up and would also most likely require a longer period to reach the same learning curve.
In line with the cultural considerations outlined in the commitment stage, the active mentoring process can also involve either written documentation such as the SKILL2E template or, again, verbal agreement. In any case, it is essential that meetings pay heed to the following aspects:
- Setting the scene: creating a positive atmosphere, this may, for example, involve a special meeting place, ensuring that there is no disturbance by phone or clients, establishing and retaining the trust of the mentee
- Reviewing activities that have been agreed on: for example, the mentee might report on the impact of a specific action the mentor has suggested trialing
- Discussing any current issues but always with an eye to the objective of the mentoring process itself, specific job-related aspects should be in most cases kept apart of the mentoring process and should be directed to the task supervisor, however, the way to do that might very well be a relevant topic in the mentoring process
- Agreeing on what to reflect on or do until the next meeting
- Closing on a positive note

The first meeting is, of course, the most crucial one and should be dedicated to trust building.

In accordance with the task profile of the cultural mentor, concrete activities during the mentoring process will usually comprise:
- Identifying the needs of the mentee with respect to cultural differences
- Encouraging the mentee to view situations from different perspectives, potentially using own experiences as examples
- Observing the mentee's verbal and non-verbal communication pattern to pick up any relevant cultural clues
- Sharing knowledge with the mentee on cultural practices and values of the organization
- Assessing the mentee's agenda with respect to the overall purpose of the cultural mentoring
- Focusing the mentee on the most relevant agenda items in consideration of the timeframe available and the most likely effective strategy of supporting mentee integration and the utilization of his or her potential
- Evaluating the mentee's account and review of applied actions and strategies
- Giving and receiving feedback
- Advising on concrete actions and strategies to empower the mentee to address cultural issues at the workplace and in relationship to colleagues and superiors
- Discussing, negotiating and agreeing on concrete actions, strategies and targets
- Summarizing and clarifying, especially agreed actions, taking into account potential language barriers and an incomplete grasp of the language of communication
- Recording relevant aspects of the meetings in order to be able to relate to those later in the mentoring process

Validation from Cases

In all cases, it was stressed that the first phase was dedicated to getting to know each other and most importantly to establishing trust. Supporting the mentee in solving minor day-to-day problems was crucial to trust-building as these activities catered to immediate needs and set a positive atmosphere for a more in-depth reflection. This clearly proves that creating a relaxed atmosphere is conducive to the mentoring process.
The Spanish mentor remarked that it might be useful to get into contact with the mentee before his or her arrival at the host institution.

Spanish mentor: "The meetings are very important to reach successful inclusion of students in the company, but I think that in some cases it's necessary to contact prior to arrival via email to prepare the landing of the student in the company. In my case the evolution has been as follows: at first moment the mentor speaks more, the mentee has many questions at the end of the Mentor do question and the student mentor will reflect on their experience (student speaks more)."

Austrian mentor: "Phase two was centered on reflection and analysis of the cultural environment. In a number of casually set meetings, the mentees and the mentor met to discuss situations and analyze cultural differences. The background of both students contributed to an in-depth discussion. As both students were assigned to research projects, the academic setting served as an initial point of discussion, with the opportunity to reflect on experiences in different cultural settings. …The level of trust improved over the time the mentoring process took place. As we got to know each other better, more sensitive topics became open for discussion."

Finnish mentor: "We have very informal meeting which I believe helped the mentee to really talk about the things he found good and bad and maybe even challenging and hard in the new working culture and well as the overall cultural differences. I was able to tell the mentee about how we usually act in Finland and in our company and I felt that it helped the mentee to understand the differences better. The mentee was also open-minded about how he felt, which then helped me to help him further. …I believe that the mentoring meetings should take place in an informal place and be very open so that both parties feel that they can talk about everything. If the mentee is not ready to give any criticism it is very hard for the mentor to help him. Also the mentor should be open about which things are good and which things the mentee should think about more, in order for the whole program to be working as good as possible."

All mentees mentioned that the mentor helped them with various minor issues in their daily personal and professional lives, which helped them to integrate faster into the organization and better understand some of the culturally relevant behaviour of the locals they were interacting with.

Romanian (BA) student 1 in Spain: "I think the mentoring meetings were supportive in integrating into the organizational and host countryculture, because we spoke a lot about this theme and also we were given some examples that helped us there."

Turkish student in Austria: " You don't feel lonely …Mentor wants to help, optimize"

At least in two cases (Spain and Austria), there were some serious issues involved that might have had a very negative impact on the mentee integration and also on the perception of the host country and organizational culture.

Austrian mentor: "For example, one of the students experienced difficulties in getting into relaxed social contact with his colleagues at the lab. He had the feeling that they did would not greet him and generally exhibit a behaviour that he interpreted as dismissive. During the discussion it became evident that in Turkey the lab colleagues would have been expected to take the initiative in welcoming the new student. In this particular lab group it seemed that the feeling was that the initiative should come from the newcomer. This might have been considered impolite in the student's point of view. We discussed this issue in detail and then encouraged the student to actively approach his colleagues, e.g. by joining them for morning coffee in the coffee room. In the next meeting, the student was able to report success."

Romanian student 2 in Spain: "One time, we discussed about the fact that from time to time my colleagues used to make all kind of jokes about nationalities and I thought they may be racists, but she told me that they are not, they just want to make fun of everything because it's a part of their culture."

It was interesting to note that the Turkish mentee was surprised that fun could be involved in the mentoring process. This comment in itself is very likely culturally based.

Turkish student in Finland: " We followed the exact meeting schedule and in addition to that we spoke more than what we planned. We solved my problem together and immediately and also talked about my culture and Finnish culture, organizational culture and so on... Mentoring could be quite serious thing but we experienced very fun and different style of mentoring.

Best Practice

- The active mentoring process is carried out over a period of at least 3 months ensure that Meetings are held face-to-face weekly over at least an hour.
- The meeting environment is supportive of the process; any potential disturbance is kept to a minimum.
- The mentor is fully aware of the task profile and suitable activities during the meetings.
- The first meeting is dedicated to trust building and establishing a learning relationship.
- The meetings have a defined structure.
- An outcome is agreed at every meeting by mentor and mentee either in writing or through both verbally confirming the outcome. - The mentor is mindful of the mentee's reactions and non-verbal clues and uses culturally appropriate and effective measures to keep the mentoring process active and meaningful.

Step 5: Evaluation and Closure

Definition and logic:
Evaluation refers to the provision of feedback by the mentor and mentee on the mutual benefits gained in the process. This is done in the final meeting, which should be closed on a positive note.

Objectives and Standards of Measurement The objective is to reinforce a positive attitude towards the process of cultural adjustment and learning. The process itself may have its challenges and difficulties, but the closure needs to focus on the opportunities of learning moments and their potential to foster growth for all involved. The articulation of benefits on the mentor and mentee can serve as an indicator provided that cultural modes of expressions are considered. Verification of the achievement of this objective is done in step 6.

Activities The final mentoring session dedicated to evaluation and closure needs to be carefully prepared in terms of time needed, location and environment, and most importantly, clarity as to its content and relevance. The mentor needs to make it clear that this final session will not discuss any current or upcoming issues any more but will focus on the mutual benefits and the closure of the mentoring process only. It also requires that the mentor stresses that any benefit is relevant irrespective of its seeming extent as its full impact might not yet be fully grasped and only felt later. The format of providing this feedback needs to be culturally sensitive as not all cultures are used, for example, to giving direct feedback, especially to a senior person. The closing of this final meeting, even more so than the other ones, should end on a positive note. Apart from focusing on the mutual benefits, it is also necessary that the mentoring process itself is clearly finished, regardless whether mentor and mentee will keep up a personal or professional relationship or not. Any activity after the final meeting is not part of the active mentoring process any more despite the fact that this process may have initiated it. It must also be clear that the special mentoring relationship has been finished and, if applicable, the relationship will continue in a different way. While this may involve a tinge of sadness on having to finish this process, especially if it has worked very well for both sides, it is essential that the mentor closes the active mentoring process on a positive note. The sustainability of the cultural learning triggered through that process should be the focal point.

Validation from Cases

In all cases, the positive impact of increasing self-awareness, raising sensitivity towards cultural differences in the company and the personal enjoyment in the mentoring process were highlighted. What has worked differently, obviously depending on the cultural orientation especially of the mentee is the personal feedback on the benefits and challenges. Mentees coming from a more indirect communication and more hierarchical culture might not feel at ease with making suggestions for improvement directly to the mentor face to face. As the Finnish mentor pointed out, the option of written feedback is essential. This was also used in these pilot cases to evaluate the mentoring process as described in step 6.

Austrian mentor: "I also saw great benefits in the process for the mentoring side. The students both provided valuable insights and the discussions were highly interesting. Overall the process lead to a new perspective for me and it also served to highlight issues in intercultural communication that may not have been perceived as issues before the mentorship. Last but not least, it was fun meeting new people."

Spanish mentor: "The process is very enriching and you learn more about the student's home country. You also get a fresh view of your business that is what gives the student. On the other hand is a self-reflection, at least in my case, as we are managing cultural difference with our own employees."

Finish mentor: "I got feedback about the process and as the mentee seemed happy it was of course nice to hear. It would be interesting to have written feedback, as people tend to be more critical than in a face to face discussion. I didn't get much improvement propositions, which would have been good to get as well."

All mentors and mentees mentioned that the process was beneficial for them and that they would definitely recommend implementing the programme on a larger scale.

Finnish mentor: " Absolutely! This is something that both the mentor and mentee would gain from and I believe that it would be great for companies to realize that it isn't that hard to work with a person from a different culture and for the mentee to see what kind of opportunities different work cultures can offer."

Austrian mentor "I had the impression that for my mentees it was good to have mentoring meetings as it provided them with a possibility to reflect their experiences and to receive a "local reality check", i.e., to see if their experiences or issues may be rooted in a cultural reason."

Spanish mentor: " We did a closure meeting, with a long conversation to get feedback from both sides .. I think the mentor helps to understand cultural issues such as hierarchical relationships within the company. In my experience that differs greatly from one country to another and from one company to another ... I think both students are satisfied with their experience. I believe this experience has opened the minds of the students."

Turkish student in Finland commenting on mentor benefits:
"I think my mentor can decide that but at least my mentor knows about my culture more after me."

Romanian student 2 in Spain: "Moreover, I think my mentor got some benefits also, such as developing her skills in guiding someone. Yes, at the end of my placement I told her she was very helpful and I thanked for it."

Turkish student in Austria: "I think he knows now a little about our culture, some things."

Best Practice

- The final meeting focuses on the articulation of the mutual benefits of the mentoring process and closes the relationship on a positive note.
- The objective of this final meeting has been clearly communicated and agreed on by mentor and mentee
- The conditions under which this meeting is carried out are carefully considered and guarantee tothe extent possiblea favourable atmosphere
- The mentor conducts and supports the provision of mutual feedback in a culturally appropriate manner
- The mentor ensures that the mentoring relationship is clearly regarded as finished and that any activity between mentor and mentee will from now on be outside the mentoring process

Step 6: Feedback and Improvement

Definition and logic:
Feedback refers to the quantitative and qualitative measures used to assess the effectiveness of the cultural mentoring process after its closure. Improvement includes any adaptations made to the cultural mentoring in the enterprise.

Objectives and Standards of Measurement
The objectives are to collect valid feedback on the concrete cultural mentoring implementation in a specific enterprise and how to potentially improve it. Valid feedback means that the measure used must conform to common practices and ideally combine quantitative and qualitative measures due to the complexity and many-faceted nature of cultural aspects involved in this process.
Quantitative measures may include, for example, questionnaires or retaking the IDI. A score of more than 7 points higher than the one before entering the mentoring process can be seen as a significant improvement and a further development towards appreciating and effectively dealing with cultural differences.
Qualitative measures may include, for example, (structured) interviews with the mentor and mentee but also potentially with colleagues or supervisors of the mentee.
The SKILL2E evaluation model provides a combination of quantitative and qualitative measures and utilizes the innovative approach of Q-sorting

The exact nature of the feedback measures need to be agreed and defined before the mentoring process is started. Equally, it needs be clearly set out what is going to be assessed and why, including what will be done with the results. Whichever department and whoever, in terms of function in the enterprise is responsible for implementing the cultural mentoring process needs to ascertain that the feedback instrument/s are in place before the mentoring process starts and that the utilization of its results are clearly defined and communicated to all affected. This refers most importantly to the mentor and mentee, whose mentoring relationship has finished but not this part of the whole process.

Any improvement measure needs to be carefully considered as specific feedback may be affected by a number of variables and only after having collected feedback from a sample of a certain size may actually be valid. Furthermore, the set-up and cultural backgrounds of the mentoring pair may equally have an impact on the results. As already mentioned above, not all cultures are used to giving direct feedback and statements or answers need to be interpreted with this knowledge in mind.
The IDI has proven a valid and reliable instrument across cultural boundaries for assessing development on a continuum of increasing capability to accept, appreciate and address cultural differences. Asking the mentor and mentee to retake the IDI after the cultural mentoring process has finished may well serve as one indicator of the process success. The sustainability of the cultural mentoring concept and the extent to which it impacts the enterprise at large can also be diagnosed by applying the IDI to groups at defined intervals and after cultural mentoring processes have taken place.

Validation from Cases

In the pilot cases the following feedback measures were used:
- A questionnaire on the mentoring process filled in by both mentors and mentees and related to the defined steps
- A Q-sorting questionnaire for the students on the overall intervention measures including the use of the assessment instrument, pre-departure training, the intercultural diary and the final report and/or feedback session
- A retake of the IDI to identify any change in the score as an indicator for a development in intercultural competence
- An analysis of the intercultural diaries to verify any correlation between the identified (non-) development of the IDI scores
- A personal interview with all mentors and mentees on their experience
As the Finnish mentor pointed out it was essential to use personal feedback but also to provide an opportunity for written feedback. The change in the IDI scores was most dramatic with 29 and 27 points respectively for the Austrian mentor and the Romanian student who both already had quite ample experience abroad. It seems that the reflective process triggered the potential for the increased competence in dealing with difference.

Identified strengths focused on
- increased self-awareness and thus the ability to better deal and cope with cultural differences
- the possibility to find different and differentiated solutions not thought about before
- the smoother integration process of the placement students
- he possibility of comparing the IDI scores before and after the cultural mentoring process
Finnish mentor: "I believe that everyone should work as a mentor once in order to understand which kinds of differences we need to face when working with persons from different cultures and backgrounds. If one believes that it is always easy to work with different cultures that persons is very wrong. We always face challenging situations but the most important thing then is just to stop and think about what was good/ bad and what could have been done differently. Often we believe that we do things right and another persons wrong when the fact is that the same thing can be done in many right ways and something the other way might turn out to be the better one.

Austrian mentor "Active reflection of cultural issues during a stay abroad is the main strength I see with this process. The possibility for the mentees to express opinions, formulate doubts, and to consult the opinion of a local. ...

Romanian student in Austria: "The key benefit of this mentoring process is to help the incoming student to adapt faster than normal to the host culture, and provide him with trained contacts that can give competent solutions to the problems he faces, especially during the critical initial weeks. I've had the chance to study abroad in another country, without a mentor, and the adaptation process was significantly longer and more consuming. As such, I would recommend this concept for any international placements."

Turkish student in Finland "the main thing that mentee should feel comfortable in a culture that he/she has not known yet. Supportive, friendly, problem solving, open to talk... there are the important features for a mentor and most powerful side for my experience".

Romanian student 1 (AB) in Spain: "Until I got back I didn't realise if the IDI assessment helped me or not, but after I did the second part I realised that my level was increased."

Suggestions for improvement on the mentor side were all related to
- getting more training
- receiving support / feedback during the mentoring process from a supervisor
- being able to allocate more time resources to the mentoring

Spanish mentor:"I think that the most important is prior learning for both, mentor and mentee."

Austrian mentor: In retrospect, occasional consultation of both mentor and mentees with the team who drafted the process would be beneficial."

Finnish mentor: "It would have been great to get some more information about mentoring and how to work as a mentor. It would have helped me to get "into the process" faster."

Suggestions for improvement on the mentee side referred to
- time constraints both on the side of the mentor and mentee
- the relevance of having a mentor from the organization the mentee works for
- being sufficiently fluent in the common language of conducting the active mentoring

Romanian (PS) student in Austria: "The key challenge for both of us was time, but we did manage to set a decent balance of meeting times. Also, the fact that he wasn't part of my host institution (as explained before) made him unable to advise on some particular issues, but they got sorted out fine in the end."

Romanian (OP) mentee2 in Spain: "Everything should be scheduled and respect this time periods".

Unanimously in these pilot cases, mentor and mentee recommended cultural mentoring as a means to facilitate the integration into an organization and leverage its potential to the benefit of all engaged in the process:

Finnish mentor: "Absolutely! This is something that both the mentor and mentee would gain from and I believe that it would be great for companies to realize that it isn't that hard to work with a person from a different culture and for the mentee to see what kind of opportunities different work cultures can offer."

Austrian mentor: "I would recommend offering the mentoring concept for any student, without mandatory participation by the mentee."

Spanish mentor: Completely, I think it's something that can ensure the success of the internship program, which means that companies continue to promote these programs and students get all the experience.The relationship between mentor and mentee is a good tandem to deal all those issues which may arise during the process of adaptation.

Romanian student in Austria: "The key benefit of this mentoring process is to help the incoming student to adapt faster than normal to the host culture, and provide him with trained contacts that can give competent solutions to the problems he faces, especially during the critical initial weeks. I've had the chance to study abroad in another country, without a mentor, and the adaptation process was significantly longer and more consuming. As such, I would recommend this concept for any international placements."

Turkish student in Finland: "I absolutely recommend."

Romanian student 1 (AB) in Spain: "Yes, I recommend the mentoring process to every student that goes abroad."

Romanian student 2 (OP) in Spain: "For sure. I believe in it and I will recommend it to my colleagues who want to apply in the next future for a placement abroad."

Best Practice

- Feedback measures and their intention are clearly defined and communicated to all affected before the outset of the cultural mentoring process
- Measures include quantitative and qualitative measures as practiced in the SKILL2E Evaluation Model
- Measures based on the results for improving the implementation of the cultural mentoring carefully consider the complexity of factors relating to culture
- The IDI taken before and after the cultural mentoring process provides an objective indicator for the effectiveness of this intervention
- The sustainability of the positive impact of the cultural mentoring process is indicated by IDI group profiles taken at regular intervals

Best practices

For each step of the Implementation of the cultural mentoring concept in the enterprise best practices have been selected:
Step 1: Selection and Matching
Step 2: Preparation
Step 3: Commitment
Step 4: Active Mentoring
Step 5: Evaluation and Closure
Step 6: Feedback and Improvement
Two special case study are presented in detail: Porsche Interauto: Using IDI Assessment and Cultural Mentoring for apprentices with migratory backgrounds Using IDI Assessment and Cultural Mentoring to Build intercultural Competence in the Organization (COPA-DATA)

Special Case Study 1: Porsche Interauto: Using IDI Assessment and Cultural Mentoring for apprentices with migratory backgrounds

Current Situation
Porsche Interauto (PIA) is the largest car dealer in Austria with currently over 4000 employees. The company has been continuously expanding its business efforts in Central and Southeast Europe. Employees in higher echelons have been well trained with respect to cross-cultural competence to deal with the challenges of a globalized market. The increasing percentage of apprentices,especially as car mechanics, with a migratory background has now been identified as a further area for cross-cultural competence building. A comparatively high level of absenteeism in this group and frictions between apprentices / trainees and trainers resulting in productivity loss are the main reasons for addressing this issue. The main objectives are sensitizing both trainers and trainees for relevance of accepting and bridging cultural differences, leveraging the potential of the trainees, raising employee satisfaction and thus productivity.

The following procedure has been agreed and has been envisaged to be scheduled within a roughly 12 months.
Phase 1: Awareness Raising and Acceptance Building for Project Objectives.
- Workshop 1 with 12 trainers
- Workshop 2 with 12 apprentices / trainees with a migratory background
Both workshops include taking the IDI, generation of personal and group IDI profiles, used to customize workshop design; presentation and discussion of project objectives, expected impact on Porsche Interauto, construction of stereotypes, perception of differences and commonalities. The focus and concrete implementation is, however, different. This phase is characterized by raising awareness for the need to address cultural differences and by triggering self-reflection as a prerequisite for competence building.

Phase 2: Addressing components of Cross-cultural Competence
Again, independent workshops for trainers and trainees are held focusing on such aspects as hierarchy, attitude towards time, especially punctuality, gender equality, communication and conflict styles. These workshops also include a feedback session on the personal IDI profile.

Phase 3: Workshops focusing on Identified Needs
It is expected that on the trainer side the focus is on guiding and appropriate cross-cultural communication and behavior, whereas on the trainee side bridging and integrating different value systems is expected to be in the foreground. Trainers will not act explicitly as mentors as this would clash with their position as immediate superiors of the trainees. However, aspects of the SKILL2E Cultural Mentoring Model such as the qualification profile and task profile are going to be used.

Phase 4: Retake of IDI to identify impact on cultural orientation, evaluation of workshop impacts and identification of further procedure

Phase 5: presentation of evaluation results and conclusions to Human resouces management of Porsche Interauto, discussion and decision of further steps. At this stage it is also expected to make a decision on launching a formal cultural mentoring programme for apprentices / trainees with a migratory background.

As of date, the implementation had to be postponed due to the maternity leave of the responsible HR officer, but is expected to start in October 2012. The HR manager of Porsche Interauto, Klaus Fetka, is fully supports this project and is convinced that it will help reduce an estimated 40% productivity loss in the company due to culturally induced frictions.

Special Case study 2: Using IDI Assessment and Cultural Mentoring to Build intercultural Competence in the Organization

Current Situation
COPA-DATA is an SME based in Salzburg but acting internationally through branches and distributors on all continents in over 50 countries. The company produces HMI/SCADA, Dynamic Production Reporting and integrated PLC-System software for dynamically optimizing production processes. Their main product is the automation software zenon. The success of zenon worldwide requires a culturally competent workforceto facilitate customer interaction, properly addressing customer needs and to communicate appropriately across business and organizational cultures. Building cross-cultural competence has been recognized as an important factor in implementing COPA-DATA's slogan do it your waynot only as related to the software solutions but also to establish mutually beneficial customer relationships.

Needs Analysis: Two main groups have been identified at the Salzburg headquarters in terms of the need for cross-cultural competence building in the organization:
1) Administration: few interactions with people from other cultures, necessity for awareness raising towards the issue in the foreground
2) Sales / Technology /Training: actively involved in customer relationship building and interaction with people from other cultures; cross-cultural competence highly required
The main objective is to build sustainable cross-cultural competence in the organization as a whole.

Procedure: In order to achieve this objective a 3-phase implementation procedure has been agreed. This involves the following phases:
1. Phase 1: Awareness Raising / Acceptance Building for Cross-Cultural Competence as a vital success factor
a. Identification of 16 volunteers from all teams across the above mentioned two groups with a stronger representation from group 2
b. Generation of individual and group IDI profiles
c. Personal feedback sessions with all volunteers to trigger self-reflection and critical assessment of current attitude / communication / behavior towards cultural differences
d. 1-day training customized on the basis of the IDI group profile and the identified individual needs, focus: sensitizing participants for topic, addressing attitudes and culture-general knowledge and skills through short theory inputs and hands-on exercises
e. Evaluation, feedback and lessons learned from phase 1

2. Phase 2: Mentor Training
a. Selection of mentors from the volunteer group in Phase 1. Criteria are suitability against SKILL2E mentor qualification profile, expected impact on organization and willingness to act as mentor
b. Mentor Training based on identified needs of potential mentors; focus: skills development like active listening, non-judgemental behavior, appropriate communication /feedback giving and conflict resolution in a cross-cultural context
c. Evaluation, feedback and lessons learned from Phase 2

3. Phase 3: Implementation of Cultural Mentoring and Start for Mainstreaming
a. Active Mentoring with mentees selected on grounds of highest expected impact on organization and executed in line with the SKILL2E Model
b. Evaluation, feedback and lessons learned from Phase 3

As of date, Phase 1 has been started, 16 volunteers identified, IDI tests will be taken until December 2012, training is scheduled for January 2013. Parallel to Phase 3 new volunteers for mentor training are intended to be identified. These will then be walked through the same procedure as the first group of volunteers. It is expected thata positive multiplicator effect is triggered and that the cross-cultural competence does not reside in specific individuals but is continuously and sustainably built in the organization. Eventually, cross-cultural competence is intended to be a major asset and component of COPA-DATA's values mirrored in the slogan do it your way.

Managing international placements

Sed gravida velit ut lorem dictum vitae venenatis dolor faucibus. In vehicula malesuada mi, vel semper sem porta in. Mauris suscipit lorem eget justo congue semper.

Donec et purus eget elit tristique consequat. Integer ut orci eu augue tristique viverra nec vitae odio. Nulla sem nibh, posuere quis condimentum vitae, posuere sit amet lectus. Morbi euismod tincidunt mauris ut scelerisque.

References and Links

Diversity Wins
Team Building
Vienna research
Georgetown Study

SKILL2E Project Homepage provides a project description, the description of the consortium and a possibility to access and download the following concept reports relevant in this context and developed in the course of the SKILL2E Project
Intercultural Competence Assessment Instrument Report
Pre-Departure Training Concept
Cultural Mentor Concept
Enterprise Workshop Brochure

Idi Homepage provides description of assessment instrument and its application, how to become a qualified administrator and further references on research on IDI, especially as regards its validity

Porsche Interauto
COPA-DATA Homepage


1. Sample Mentoring Contract
2. Sample Mentoring Session Documentation
3. SKILL2E Placement /Internship Offer Form
4. SKILL2E Placement / Internship Application Form
5. SKILL2E Feedback Questionnaire for Mentors
6. SKILL2E Feedback Questionnaire for Mentees


Sed gravida velit ut lorem dictum vitae venenatis dolor faucibus. In vehicula malesuada mi, vel semper sem porta in. Mauris suscipit lorem eget justo congue semper.

Donec et purus eget elit tristique consequat. Integer ut orci eu augue tristique viverra nec vitae odio. Nulla sem nibh, posuere quis condimentum vitae, posuere sit amet lectus. Morbi euismod tincidunt mauris ut scelerisque.